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路面施工缺陷:表面波浪

作者:金沙js55555官网 发布时间:2019/2/15 下午4:31:19 查看次数:1514

1.现象

 

沥青表面波浪分为:小波浪、大波浪和搓板式波浪。小波浪也称纹波或搅龙暗斑,一般间隔0.30.9 m,多数间隔0.450.60 m;大波浪相隔较远,甚至达到料车衔接的距离;搓板式波浪或路面粗糙是因振动压路机操作不当导致,这类波浪通常间隔很小,一般不到75100 mm

 

 

2.危害

 

表面波浪(大波浪和小波浪)对路面性能的长期影响表现在两个方面:

1. 降低路面平整度,进而降低路面等级和路面寿命。然而,只有在重载交通下波浪十分严重,对路面冲击载荷很大时,道路的结构性能才会发生变化;

2. 小波浪及其影响因素会降低路面密实度。一般而言,软料比稳定料更难正确压实,导致密实度降低,孔隙率增加。

搓板式波浪主要是在压实期间形成。这种缺陷影响压实后的密实度,显著降低路面寿命,导致车辆颠簸。

 

3.原因

 

小波浪

导致小波浪的主要原因是搅龙槽料位忽高忽低。由刮板向后输送到熨平板前部搅龙槽中的混合料时多(高过搅龙顶部)时少(低于搅龙底部),改变了熨平板上作用力,导致受力平衡破坏,熨平板绕大臂牵引点旋转,搜索重新达到平衡的仰角。而仰角变化,导致摊铺厚度变化,遂形成表面波浪。

导致小波浪其他原因有:熨平板的机械状态恶化,如连接处间隙过大;摊铺机上的纵坡仪安装不当或灵敏度设置过高;使用基准(如钢丝绳、铝梁等)有问题;移动式基准(浮动式平衡梁)跳动;料车驾驶员在摊铺机推动料车时一直踩刹车。

小波浪还与混凝土配比设计有关。混合料温度和成分改变,硬度也随之变化,作用在熨平板上的阻力也相应发生变化,导致熨平板上升和下降,从而产生小波浪。另外,若混凝土的骨料级配、沥青含量、温度和含水量(混合料偏软)不当,压路机碾压期间会使混合料推移而导致小波浪出现。

注:小波浪大多因机手操作不当或混合料硬度变化造成,很少由压实设备操作导致。

 

大波浪

有些导致小波浪的原因,也会导致大波浪:搅龙槽料位波动或混合料硬度变化,改变了熨平板上的作用力;熨平板机械状态恶化;纵坡仪安装不正确(用作纵坡基准的标线下垂,也会形成大波浪);料车驾驶员操作不当,料车撞击摊铺机或摊铺机推动料车时一直踩刹车。

导致大波浪的其他因素有:机手操作不当,如频繁手调摊铺厚度;基层表面不平整,大波浪是基层波浪的反映;压路机突然转向或倒车,特别是当摊铺厚度较大或热拌沥青混合料较软时,混合料在压实设备作用下产生纵向移动。

注:

1. 混合料中使用的最大骨料相对摊铺厚度较小时,波浪还会加剧。较软的混合料在碾压轮前部形成壅包,从而产生波浪;

2. 若波峰距与料车衔接距离一致,可能是摊铺机刮板料位器调整不当或料车衔接时,料斗和输送料系统中混合料已完全用光等原因造成的大波浪。

 

搓板式波浪

搓板式波浪通常由振动压路机操作不当引起。压路机的振动频率要尽可能高,振幅则与摊铺层的厚度有关,摊铺厚度越大振幅应越大,反之越小。然而,压路机速度越高,搓板式波浪越严重,特别是低于2400频率数/min时。

 

4.处置

有效避免表面波浪的方法有:

1.保持搅龙槽料位稳定;

2. 控制混合料的硬度。尽可能保持混合料温度、骨料级配、沥青含量和含水量稳定;

3.正确调整刮板料位器。摊铺机前进时,尽量保持刮板输料系统和搅龙系统连续运转(接近100%),控制输分料;

4.关闭纵坡仪,观察波浪是否继续出现。如纵坡仪有故障,请参阅纵坡仪操作手册,了解相应的故障排除方法;

5.当纵坡仪滑杆沿基准线滑动时,观察基准线是否下垂,必要时调整;

6.摊铺期间仔细观察熨平板机械状态、料车和压实设备的操作,必要时调整;

7.若因振动式压路机操作不当导致了搓板式波浪,应调整压路机振幅、振动频率和速度。

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